In April, 1908 the 101st Edmonton Fusiliers were established as Alberta's first infantry regiment. The first commanding office was Lieutenant-Colonel E.B. Edwards. The 101st developed slowly, as most in the Edmonton area were attracted to the 19th Alberta Dragoons, a cavalry regiment which had been established in January of 1908.
When war broke out in 1914, there was some question about the legality of using the existing militia regiments to fight overseas in Europe. As such, the newly formed Canadian Expeditionary Force was comprised entirely of new battalions and the 101st was not allowed to go overseas. The 101st Edmonton Fusilier recruited and contributed 1,200 men to these new battalions of the 1st Canadian Division, C.E.F in 1914.
The Loyal Edmonton Regiment was formed up in 1915 as the 49th Battalion, C.E.F. to fight overseas. Many of the men that were originally recruited by the 101st Edmonton Fusiliers ended up serving in the 49th Battalion. As such, it was decided at the end of the First World War that the 49th Battalion, The Edmonton Regiment would perpetuate the 101st Edmonton Fusiliers.
In 1943, His Majesty King George VI decreed by royal charter that the Edmonton Regiment would be know as The Loyal Edmonton Regiment.